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Saturday, July 25, 2015

Artikel Bahasa Inggeris : Mulberries nutrition facts

Refreshingly succulent, tart and sweet mulberries are indeed rich in numerous health benefiting flavonoid phyto-nutrients. Botanically, they are the berries obtained from the silkworm tree belonging to the Moraceae family, within the genus: Morus. Scientific name: Morus nigra. L. In Spanish, they are known as moras.

More than hundred species of morus exist. In taxonomy, species generally are identified not by the color of their fruits (berries) but by the color of flower buds, and leaves. So, a morus plant can exhibit different color berries (black, purple, red, white, etc.) in the same plant.

white or chinese mulberrywhite mulberry flowers
Mulberry-Morus alba.
A white mulberry plant can have different color fruits.
Moras buds and flowers.
Photo courtesy: mauroguanandi.


Three species have been recognized for their economic importance.
  • White mulberry (Morus alba) is native to eastern and central China.
  • Red or American mulberry (Morus rubra) is native to eastern United States.
  • Black mulberry (Morus nigra) is native to western Asia.
Mulberries are large, deciduous trees native to the warm, temperate, and subtropical regions of Asia, Africa, and the Americas. Technically, mulberry fruit is an aggregation of small fruits arranged concentrically around the central axis as in blackberry or loganberries. Each fruit measures 2-5 cm in length. In most species, mulberries are purple-red when ripen; however, they can be white, red, purple or multiple variegated colors in the same fruit.

Health benefits of mulberries

  • Delicious, fleshy, succulent mulberries are less in calories (just 43 calories per 100 g). They compose of health promoting phyto-nutrient compounds like polyphenol pigment antioxidants, minerals, and vitamins that are essential for optimum health.
  • Mulberries have significantly high amounts of phenolic flavonoid phytochemicals called anthocyanins. Scientific studies have shown that consumption of berries have potential health effects against cancer, aging and neurological diseases, inflammation, diabetes, and bacterial infections.
  • The berries contain resveratrol, another polyphenol flavonoid antioxidant. Resveratrol protects against stroke risk by altering molecular mechanisms in the blood vessels; reducing their susceptibility to damage through reduced activity of angiotensin (a systemic hormone causing blood vessel constriction that would elevate blood pressure) but potentiating production of the vasodilator hormone, nitric oxide.
  • In addition, these berries are an excellent sources of vitamin-C (36.4 mg per 100, about 61% of RDI), which is also a powerful natural antioxidant. Consumption of foods rich in vitamin-C helps the body develop resistance against infectious agents, counter inflammation and scavenge harmful free radicals.
  • Further, the berries also contain small amounts of vitamin A, and vitamin E, in addition to the above-mentioned antioxidants. Consumption of mulberry provides another group of health promoting flavonoid polyphenolic antioxidants such as lutein, zea-xanthin, ß-carotene and a-carotene in small but notably significant amounts. Altogether, these compounds help act as protect from harmful effects of oxygen-derived free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) that play a role in aging and various disease processes.
  • Zea-xanthin, an important dietary carotenoid selectively concentrates into the retinal macula lutea, where it thought to provide antioxidant functions and protects the retina from the harmful ultraviolet rays through light-filtering actions.
  • Mulberries are an excellent source of iron, which is a rare feature among berries, contain 1.85 mg/100 g of fruits (about 23% of RDI). Iron, being a component of hemoglobin inside the red blood cells, determines the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood.
  • They also good source of minerals like potassium, manganese, and magnesium. Potassium is an important component of cell and body fluids that helps controlling heart rate and blood pressure. Manganese is used by the body as a co-factor for the antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase.
  • They are rich in B-complex group of vitamins and vitamin K. Contain very good amounts of vitamin B-6, niacin, riboflavin and folic acid. These vitamins are function as co-factors and help body in the metabolism of carbohydrates, protein, and fats.

Selection and storage

mulberries
Mulberries.
Black mulberries, in particular, are more flavorful and tasty than their fellow white, and red varieties. Their peak season is May through August, while the latter two varieties can be readily available until late spring.
In the local stores, look for fleshy berries flavorful and heavy in hands. Avoid bruised, bleeding and sunken berries.
Mulberries spoil rather quickly. Once at home, preserve them in a zip pouch unwashed, and place inside the refrigerator where they stay fresh for up to 2-3 days. To eat, wash the berries in cold water in a container (bowl) instead of in running water. This way, you avoid injuring them. This method also brings the berries to room temperature and enhances their flavor and taste.

Preparation and serving methods

After cleaning, gently pat them dry using soft cloth. Take care not to squeeze or press the berries, else they will deface, and stain cloth, hand, etc. Then, trim away its stem end by simply pinching off with fingers or either using a small scissors or paring knife.
The berries have found their unique place in the kitchen, be it a simple mulberry pie, or somewhat, more complicated mulberry wine. They are also favored in variety of recipes.
Here are some serving tips:
  • Fresh mulberries are generally eaten as they are, without any seasonings/additions.
  • They combine well with other berry salads.
  • They can be a great snack between meals.
  • Mulberries are favored in jams, jellies, tart syrups, etc.
  • Dried mulberries can be used in pie fillings, mulberry muffins, cookies, cakes, etc.
  • They are used in ice-creams, smoothies and yogurt as in strawberriesraspberries, etc.

KHASIAT BUAH MULBERRY

Khasiat buah Mulberry ialah :

1.  Pokok Mulberry adalah makanan utama ulat sutera terutama daunnya. Maka disebabkan itulah jika di Malaysia, daun pokok Mulberry dikenali sebagai daun ulat sutera atau besaram.
2. Buah Mulberry mengandungi asid sitrik, gula dan vitamin C. Daun Mulberry pula mengandungi adenin, amilas, asid suksinik, karotena dan kolin. Biji Mulberry mengandungi ureas.
3. Kulit akar pokok mulberi mengandungi beta-amirin, minyak meruap, resinotanol dan sitosterol.
4. Bagi masyarakat di negara China, selain buahnya boleh dimakan segar atau dibuat jem, terdapat juga kegunaan lain. Secara tradisionalnya, buah Mulberry telah digunakan sebagai agen ubatan bagi memberi khasiat kepada yin dan darah, memberi kebaikan kepada buah pinggang dan merawat masalah lemah, keletihan, anemia dan masalah rambut beruban.
5. Buah Mulberry turut digunakan untuk merawat masalah ketidak-bolehan mengawal keluarnya air kencing, pening dan masalah sembelit warga tua.
6. Buah yang telah dikeringkan juga boleh dijadikan sebagai pengganti raisin.
7. Buah Mulberry juga dikatakan mampu memberi khasiat dan merangsang penghasilan cecair badan. Mereka yang mengalami masalah kekurangan cecair, mulut mereka anak kering dan lidah terasa panas. Elok juga mereka makan buah ini bagi memberi khasiat dan menambahkan cecair badan.
8. Buah mulberi ini juga sesuai kepada mereka yang mempunyai masalah mata kering akibat keletihan mata dan akibat bekerja dengan cara mengambil jus mulberi .
9. Buah mulberi juga mengandungi unsur-unsur khasiat seperti mineral dan vitamin. Dikatakan dengan memakan buah Mulberry, mampu membantu menyembuhkan penyakit kronik pada saluran pencernaan, merangsang rembesan cecair gastrik, menguatkan kebolehan bagi mencerna dan menyerap, memperbaiki selera makan dan membuang kembung perut dan sembelit.
10. Wanita yang mengalami simptom-simptom seperti anemia, kepucatan, rasa , sukar untuk tidur dan jantung berdebar-debar dengan kerap terutamanya selepas melahirkan bayi, bolehlah mengambil jus mulberi dengan kerap bagi mengurangkan simptom-simptom tersebut. Ubat kebas tangan dan kaki.
11. Daun mulberi pula dikatakan boleh direbus dan digunakan sebagai ubat mencuci mata yang merah dan bengkak. Daun yang telah kering pula dikatakan boleh dicampur dengan air mendidih atau direbus. Air ini dikatakan boleh diminum untuk tujuan membersihkan tubuh badan, merangsang peluh, ubat batuk, demam panas dan selsema. Daun yang telah dipanaskan pula dikatakan boleh disapu minyak dan dijadikan sebagai ubat tampal pada luka yang parah.
12. Bagi mereka yang mengalami masalah gigitan atau sengatan serangga, daun yang telah ditumbuk lumat boleh dijadikan sebagai ubat tampal pada bekas gigitan atau sengatan serangga tersebut.
13. Jika mengalami masalah tangan atau kaki yang , bolehlah mengambil getah daripada daun atau ranting mulberi, kemudiannya gosokkan pada bahagian yang kebas.
14. Akar pokok boleh direbus dan dijadikan sebagai air minum bagi merawat asma, batuk, busung, melawaskan pembuangan air kecil dan radang. Air rebusan kulit pokok mulberi pula dikatakan boleh diminum untuk merawat sistem pernafasan, asma, batuk, bronchitis, busung, menyingkirkan kahak dan hingus, tekanan darah tinggi, kebas tangan atau kaki.
15. Ranting kering pokok mulberi pula dikatakan boleh direbus dan dijadikan sebagai air minum bagi merawat demam panas dan mengatasi rasa sakit.
Walaupun terdapat pelbagai khasiat dan kebaikan Mulberry, namun perlulah mendapatkan nasihat daripada pengamal perubatan bagi mengelakkan kemudaratan di kemudian hari kelak.
Read more: http://suteraungu87.blogspot.com/2013/11/khasiat-buah-mulberry.html#ixzz3gyD9tPbW

Buah malberi menambah sel darah merah dan antioksidan

Buah Mulberry memang belum banyak diketahui orang di Indonesia. Buah yang bentuk fisiknya mirip dengan buah blackberry ini ternyata memiliki banyak manfaat bagi kesehatan. Tak jarang, yang sekarang beredar di pasar merupakan black mulberry yang kebanyakan orang mengira itu blackberry.


Buah berwarna merah kehitaman ini kaya akan zat besi, yang penting bagi pertumbuhan sel darah merah dan mencegah penyakit anemia. Pada setiap 100 gram mulberry terkandung 1,85mg, 23% dari asupan harian yang direkomendasikan atau setara dengan sepotong daging sirlion.


Buah ini juga merupakan buah yang kaya vitamin C dan memiliki resveratrol yang tinggi, sebuah antioksidan yang juga ditemukan pada anggur merah yang dapat membersihkan polutan dalam tubuh.


Sebuah penelitian pada tikus menemukan bahwa resveratol sangat efektif melawan tumor pada kulit, payudara, paru-paru dan prostat.

Sunday, October 5, 2014

Manfaat Kesihatan Dari Buah Malberi

Nutrien dalam buah malberi mengandungi manfaat untuk kesihatan tubuh. ‎Antaranya:

Anti-oksidan 
Anthocyanin adalah jenis anti-oksidan yang sangat berkesan (juga banyak terdapat dalam beras pulut/ketan hitam). Beberapa kajian sains, juga kajian-kajian yang dibiayai oleh 'National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine' dan 'National Cancer Institute' khusus keatas buah malberi, mendapati permakanan malberi (dari anthocyanin) berpotensi sebagai anti-kanser, anti-keradangan, anti penyakit jantung, anti kencing manis, anti-jangkitan penyakit, anti-penuaan dan anti-kemerosotan otak. Ia juga mengutuhkan sistem kekebalan tubuh.

Resveratrol adalah nutrien phyto (juga banyak terdapat dalam anggur) yang berkesan bagi mencegah rebakan kanser. Ia juga didapati melindungi dari strok melalui ubahsuai mekanisma molekeul dalam saluran darah, mengurangkan aktiviti angiotensin (hormon yang menyebabkan penguncupan saluran darah dan menambah tekanan darah tinggi), menambah penghasilan hormon vasodilator (nitric oxide) yang memberi isyarat perhubungan dikalangan sel-sel, dengan demikian mengurangkan kerosakan pada saluran darah. Resveratrol juga berkesan sebagai anti-penuaan.

Lutein, zeaxanthin, ß-carotene dan α-carotene.
Bahan-bahan ini membantu melindungi tubuh dari kerosakan akibat dari radikal bebas, dan dari proses penuaan. Zeaxanthin, sejenis karotenoid, yang diserap oleh retina mata (macula lutea) merupakan anti-oksidan dan melindungi retina dalam proses penapisan cahaya kedalam mata.‎

Peredaran Darah 
Buah malberi membantu mempertingkat pengaliran darah keseluruh tubuh, merendahkan tekanan darah, mengurangkan risiko pembekuan darah dan strok. Demikian menurut satu lapuran dalam "American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2008." ‎
Kandungan zat besi yang terdapat didalam buah malberi boleh membantu pesakit anemia.

Perubatan Tradisional 
Perubatan tradisional Cina - buah malberi dianggap sebagai tonik darah, dapat mencuci dan menambah darah, mencuci organ hati dari keracunan, menguat dan menyihatkan ginjal, mempertajam pendengaran dan penglihatan, dan menguatkan seluruh anggota tubuh.
Perubatan tradisional Turki - merawat sembelit, dan jangkitan selsema.
Beberapa negara mempercayai buah malberi berkesan merawat rambut beruban.


Jom Tanam Mulberry !!!
Sumber : http://dharmakesuma.blogspot.com/2014/03/ada-apa-pada-malberimulberry.html

Pangkas Malberi Supaya Pokok Berbuah

Pokok malberi yang biasa di tanam di perkarangan rumah biasanya dari dua variety iaitu yang menghasilkan buah putih dan yang menghasilkan buah merah. Malberi buah putih lazimnya lebih jarang berbuah berbanding dengan malberi buah merah. Malbei ada ditanam secara komersial tetapi bukan untuk buahnya. Ia ditanam untuk daunnya iaitu sebagai makanan ulat sutera.

Saya pernah terbaca khasiat daun malberi yang digunakan sebagai daun teh. Saya tanam malberi untuk buahnya. Pokok ini kurang popular kerana ia memakan masa selama 8 tahun untuk berbuah. Bagaimanapun anda boleh langkau masa tersebut dengan menanam pokok menggunakan keratan batang. Sebenarnya, sebaik sahaja pokok yang anda tanam (melalui keratan batang) dan stabil, anda terus boleh memaksa ia berbuah.
Malberi hanya berbuah pada ranting yang baru tumbuh. Untuk menghasilkan bunga dan buah, ikut petua ini.
Kira-kira dua minggu sebelum kerat bantang malberi, tambahkan baja organik ke dalam tanah. Anda boleh gunakan kepala ikan bilis yang telah rosak, baja tinja haiwan ternakan atau kompos.

Apabila telah sedia, jalankan langkah berikut di sebelah petang. Ini untuk mengelakkan terik matahari selepas ranting dikerat.

Kerat ranting utama hingga tinggi kira-kira paras pinggang menggunakan gunting kebun yang tajam. Biarkan daun pada pangkal ranting sahaja. Jangan buang tunas pada pangkal daun tetapi petik daun untuk mengelakkan dari berlaku kehilangan air yang berlebihan. Siram pokok dengan air yang banyak tetapi jangan sampai air bertakung.

Buang daun pada ranting yang telah dikerat dan cucuk ke dalam tanah untuk disemai.



Ranting selepas seminggu dikerat. Perhatikan rang baru tumbuh pada ranting tersebut.

Ranting yang telah dikerat akan menghasilkan tunas baru dalam masa seminggu. Ranting baru akan mengandungi bunga malberi.



Ranting yang baru tumbuh mengandungi bunga malberi, iaitu putik-putik buah bewarna hijau.





Bunga malberi mempunyai bentuk buah dengan urat-urat stigma terjulur keluar.





Bunga hanya tumbuh pada ranting yang baru.

Mudah bukan?

Ada Apa Pada Malberi/Mulberry ?





Malberi (Mulberry), sejenis pohon yang kini kerap ditemui tumbuh dikampung-kampung atau disudut halaman rumah sebagai tanaman hiasan di Malaysia.

Nama botani Morus, dari genus pepohonan Moraceae.Jenis pohon merendang dan berbunga. Terdiri lebih dari 150 spesis pohon morus yang dikenali didunia ini. Banyak spesis 'hybrid' juga turut muncul. Namun, sejauh ini hanya 10–16 spesis ‎yang diterima oleh jabatan botani sebagai 'mulberry.' ‎



Pohon ini tumbuh bercambah dinegara-negara berbagai iklim; Asia, Afrika, Eropah, Amerika - Albania, Algeria, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Afghanistan, Egypt, Ethiopia, Georgia, Greece, India, Iraq, Iran, Jordan, ‎Kenya, Lebanon, Libya, Pakistan, Syria, Sudan, Turkey, Uganda, Uzbekistan.

Spesis morus australis poir (Malberi China) lebih banyak tumbuh bercambah diAsia Tenggara, termasuk Malaysia.‎Buah morus warna-warni mengikut perbezaan spesisnya; seperti hitam, biru, jingga, merah, putih dll. Buah-buahnya kecil berjambak, berumpun, berkelompok.

Buah malberi boleh dimakan mentah atau diminum dalam bentuk jus. Rasanya masam-masam manis, malberi hitam lebih manis apabila ranum. Dibeberapa negara, ia sering dibuat kueh, pie, tart, muffin, kek, kordial, dan jem. Juga digunakan sebagai bahan dalam ais krim, yogurt dsbnya.

Pohon malberi boleh tumbuh membesar. Lebih cepat membesar sewaktu muda. Ketinggian boleh mencecah antara 10–15 meter (33–‎‎49 kaki). ‎

Daun malberi, terutama malberi putih (Bombyx mori), disaji sebagai makanan utama pada ulat sutera, ‎‎“pupa/cocoon” yang menghasilkan sutera. ‎Daun malberi mempunyai nilai komersial yang tinggi di negara China, pengeluar sutera terbesar didunia.



Nutrien Buah Malberi


Buah malberi juga mengandungi serat makanan. Berjus, dan berkalori rendah; 1 cawan malberi membekal kira-kira 60 kalori sahaja.‎

Buah malberi mengandungi nutrien penting yang menyihatkan tubuh. Ia mengandungi protein, ‎karbohidrat, juga vitamin-vitamin seperti
vitamin B-kompleks, vitamin A, C, E dan K.  

Vitamin C (36.4 mcg/100g, kira-kira 61% RDI), adalah anti-‎oksidan yang berkesan. Permakanan yang tinggi vitamin C boleh membantu tubuh melawan jangkitan kuman/mikroorganisma, mencegah masalah keradangan dan menyirna radikal bebas (perosak organ tubuh).‎

Buah malberi juga merupakan sumber beberapa zat galian/gizi seperti sodium, potassium, kalsium, tembaga, besi, ‎magnesium, selenium dan zinc. ‎ 

Potassium adalah komponen penting kepada sel-sel dan cecair tubuh yang bertindak membantu rentak denyut nadi dan tekanan darah dalam tubuh.

Manganese merupakan faktor gandingan yang perlu bagi mengaktifkan tindak-tanduk aneka jenis enzim untuk berbagai urusan metabolisma dalam tubuh. Juga sebagai faktor gandingan kepada enzim anti-oksidan yang sangat berkuasa, iaitu superoxide dismutase.

Tembaga merupakan komponen kepada berbagai jenis enzim (enzim adalah molekeul protein yang ‎melaksanakan tindak-balas kimia diseluruh tubuh) yang masing-masing mempunyai fungsi tersendiri. 90% tembaga berada dalam darah merupakan komponen kepada protein 'ceruloplasmin', iaitu protein pembawa tembaga ke tisu-tisu, dan sebagai enzim yang menggalak oksidasi zat-zat gizi.

Besi merupakan ‎sebahagian dari 'hemoglobin' yang berada didalam sel-sel darah merah, yang akan menentukan jumlah oxygen dalam darah yang dibawa keseluruh tubuh.‎ Buah malberi merupakan sumber zat besi yang sangat baik; 1.85 mg/100 g (kira-kira 23% RDI).

Anthocyanin dan Resveratrol. Buah malberi mengandungi ‎‎'anthocyanin' dan 'resveratrol', jenis zat kimia phyto dari kalangan “phenolic flavonoid” yang merupakan anti-oksidan yang sangat berkuasa. Anthocyanin juga merupakan pigmen yang menjadi pewarna alami kepada buah-buahan atau bahan makanan; warna seperti oren, merah, jingga, hitam dan biru. Analisa makmal mendapati malberi China mengandungi jumlah anthocyanin yang tinggi, antara 148 mg - 2725 mg bagi setiap 1 liter jus malberi.

Lutein, zeaxanthin, ß-carotene dan α-carotene.  Disamping itu, buah malberi mengandungi kandungan sederhana “phenolic flavonoid” anti-oksidan yang lain, seperti lutein, zeaxanthin, ß-carotene dan α-carotene.



Saturday, October 4, 2014

Morus (plant)


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
"Mulberry" redirects here. For other uses, see Mulberry (disambiguation).
Mulberry
Morus alba FrJPG.jpg
Morus nigra
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Plantae
(unranked):Angiosperms
(unranked):Eudicots
(unranked):Rosids
Order:Rosales
Family:Moraceae
Tribe:Moreae[1]
Genus:Morus
L.
Species
See text.
Morus, a genus of flowering plants in the family Moraceae, comprises 10–16 species of deciduous trees commonly known as mulberries growing wild and under cultivation in many temperate world regions.[2]
The closely related genus Broussonetia is also commonly known as mulberry, notably the Paper MulberryBroussonetia papyrifera. Mulberries are swift-growing when young, but soon become slow-growing and rarely exceed 10–15 m (33–49 ft) tall. The leaves are alternately arranged, simple, often lobed, more often lobed on juvenile shoots than on mature trees, and serrated on the margin.
The trees can be monoecious or dioecious.[3][4]
The mulberry fruit is a multiple fruit, 2–3 cm (0.79–1.18 in) long. Immature fruits are white, green, or pale yellow. In most species, the fruits turn pink and then red while ripening, then dark purple or black, and have a sweet flavor when fully ripe. The fruits of the white-fruited cultivar are white when ripe; the fruit in this cultivar is also sweet but has a very mild flavor compared with the darker variety.

Species[edit]

Long Mulberry
Unripe white mulberries
The taxonomy of Morus is complex and disputed. Over 150 species names have been published, and although differing sources may cite different selections of accepted names, only 10–16 are generally cited as being accepted by the vast majority of botanical authorities. Morus classification is even further complicated by widespreadhybridisation, wherein the hybrids are fertile.
The following species are generally accepted:
The following, all from eastern and southern Asia, are additionally accepted by one or more taxonomic lists or studies; synonymy, as given by other lists or studies, is indicated in square brackets:
  • Morus atropurpurea [M. alba var. alba]
  • Morus bombycis [M. australis]
  • Morus cathayana
  • Morus indica [M. alba]
  • Morus japonica [M. alba]
  • Morus kagayamae [M. australis]
  • Morus laevigata [M. alba var.laevigata; M. macroura]
  • Morus latifolia [M. alba]
  • Morus liboensis
  • Morus macroura [M. alba var.laevigata]
  • Morus mongolica [M. alba var.mongolica]
  • Morus multicaulis [M. alba var.multicaulis]
  • Morus notabilis
  • Morus rotundiloba
  • Morus serrata [M. alba var. serrata], Himalayan mulberry
  • Morus tillaefolia
  • Morus trilobata [M. australis var. trilobata]
  • Morus wittiorum

Uses and cultivation[edit]

Mulberry fruit in Libya
The ripe fruit is edible and is widely used in pies, tarts, wines, cordials and tea. The fruit of the black mulberry, native to southwest Asia, and the red mulberry, native to eastern North America, have the strongest flavor, which has been likened to 'fireworks in the mouth'.[5]
The fruit of the white mulberry, an east Asian species which is extensively naturalized in urban regions of eastern North America, has a different flavor, sometimes characterized as refreshing and a little tart, with a bit of gumminess to it and a hint of vanilla.[6][7] In North America the white mulberry is considered an invasive exotic and has taken over extensive tracts from native plant species, including the red mulberry.[8] The mature plant contains significant amounts of resveratrol, particularly in stem bark.[9] The fruit and leaves are sold in various forms as nutritional supplements. Unripe fruit and green parts of the plant have a white sap that may be toxic, stimulating, or mildly hallucinogenic.[10]
Black, red, and white mulberry are widespread in southern Europe, the Middle Eastnorthern Africa and Indian Subcontinentwhere the tree and the fruit have names under regional dialectsJams and sherbets are often made from the fruit in this region. Black mulberry was imported to Britain in the 17th century in the hope that it would be useful in the cultivation of silkworms. It was much used in folk medicine, especially in the treatment of ringworm. Mulberries are also widespread inGreece, particularly in the Peloponnese, which in the Middle Ages was known as Morea (GreekΜωριάςMorias), deriving from the Greek word for the tree (GreekΜουριάΜouria).
Mulberries can be grown from seed, and this is often advised as seedling-grown trees are generally of better shape and health, but they are most often planted from large cuttings which root readily. The mulberry plants which are allowed to grow tall with a crown height of 5–6 feet from ground level and a stem girth of 4–5 inches or more is called tree mulberry. They are specially raised with the help of well-grown saplings 8–10 months old of any of the varieties recommended for rain-fed areas like S-13 (for red loamy soil) or S-34 (black cotton soil) which are tolerant to drought or soil-moisture stress conditions. Usually, the plantation is raised and in block formation with a spacing of 6 feet x 6 feet, or 8 feet x 8 feet, as plant to plant and row to row distance. The plants are usually pruned once a year during the monsoon season (July – August) to a height of 5–6 feet and allowed to grow with a maximum of 8–10 shoots at the crown. The leaves are harvested 3–4 times a year by a leaf picking method[clarification needed] under rain-fed or semi-arid conditions, depending on the monsoon.
The tree branches pruned during the fall season (after the leaves have fallen) are cut and used to make durable baskets supporting agriculture and animal husbandry.
Some North American cities have banned the planting of mulberries because of the large amounts of pollen they produce, posing a potential health hazard for some pollen allergy sufferers.[11] In actuality, it is only the male mulberry trees that produce pollen; this light-weight pollen can be inhaled deeply into the lungs, sometimes triggering asthma.[12][13] Conversely, female mulberry trees produce all-female flowers, which draw pollen and dust from the air. Because of this pollen-absorbing feature, all-female mulberry trees have an OPALS allergy scale rating of just 1, and are considered "allergy-free".[12]
Fortunately, mulberry tree scion wood can easily be grafted onto other mulberry trees during the winter, when the tree is dormant. One common scenario is converting a problematic male mulberry tree to an allergy-free female tree, by grafting all-female mulberry tree scions to a male mulberry that has been pruned back hard.[14] However, any new growth from below the graft(s) must be removed, as they would be from the original male mulberry tree.[15]

Silk industry[edit]

A silkworm, Bombyx mori, feeding on a mulberry tree
Mulberry leaves, particularly those of the white mulberry, are ecologically important as the sole food source of the silkworm (Bombyx mori, named after the mulberry genus Morus), the pupa/cocoon of which is used to make silk.[16][17] OtherLepidoptera larvae—which include the common emerald, the lime hawk-moth, and the sycamore moth—also sometimes eat the plant.

Pigments[edit]

Mulberry fruit color derives from anthocyanins which are under basic research for mechanisms of various diseases.[18][19] Anthocyanins are responsible for the attractive colors of fresh plant foods, including orange, red, purple, black, and blue. These colors are water-soluble and easily extractable, yielding natural food colorants. Due to a growing demand for natural food colorants, their significance in the food industry is increasing.
A cheap and industrially feasible method has been developed to extract anthocyanins from mulberry fruit which could be used as a fabric tanning agent or food colorant of high color value (above 100). Scientists found that, of thirty-one Chinese mulberry cultivars tested, the total anthocyanin yield varied from 148 mg to 2725 mg per liter of fruit juice.[20] It was also found that all the sugars, acids, and vitamins of the fruit remained intact in the residual juice after removal of the anthocyanins, so the juice could be used to produce products such as juice, wine, and sauce.
Anthocyanin content depends on climate and area of cultivation and is particularly high in sunny climates.[21] This finding holds promise for tropical countries that grow mulberry trees as part of the practice of sericulture to profit from industrial anthocyanin production through the recovery of anthocyanins from the mulberry fruit.
This offers a challenging task to the mulberry germplasm resources for
  • exploration and collection of fruit yielding mulberry species;
  • their characterization, cataloging, and evaluation for anthocyanin content by using traditional as well as modern means and biotechnology tools;
  • developing an information system about these cultivars or varieties;
  • training and global coordination of genetic stocks;
  • evolving suitable breeding strategies to improve the anthocyanin content in potential breeds by collaboration with various research stations in the field of sericulture, plant genetics, and breeding, biotechnology and pharmacology.

In popular culture[edit]

A Mulberry tree in England
The nursery rhyme Here We Go Round the Mulberry Bush uses the tree in the refrain, as do some contemporary American versions of the nursery rhyme Pop Goes the Weasel. Vincent van Gogh featured the mulberry tree in some of his paintings, notably "Mulberry Tree."[22]
The Roman mythological tale of Pyramus and Thisbe provides a story of the mulberry fruit's color. According to the tale, after the two lovers die tragically, the gods listen to Thisbe's lament and forever change the color of the mulberry fruits into their red stained color to honor the forbidden love.

Gallery[edit]